Category Archives: Nuevas Publicaciones

Nuevas Publicaciones de contribuidores de Estudios de la Economía

Painel: Estudos Sociais das Finanças

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Na quinta-feira, 07 de dezembro, Annelise Riles (Cornell University) e Eugênia Motta (IESP/UERJ) participarão do painel “Estudos Sociais das Finanças” moderado por Gustavo Onto (IFCS/UFRJ). Inscrições pelo site: www.iecbrazil.com.br

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¿Una sociología simétrica de la deuda?

[El último número de la Revista Papeles de Trabajo de la UNSAM incluye una entrevista cuyo título es: “¿Una sociología simétrica de la deuda? reflexiones a partir del análisis de los créditos de consumo en chile” Entrevista a José Ossandón”. El texto es una versión editada de una conversación, conducida por Renato Fumero, que se llevó a cabo en septiembre del 2015 en Buenos Aires. A modo de resumen, abajo, los párrafos donde intento explicar, sin mucho éxito, la idea que terminó en el título de la entrevista. Muchas gracias a Renato por el trabajo e interés]

“Desde una mirada algo estereotipada, la sociología a veces tiende a analizar la financiarización como una especie de desocialización, individualización o mercantilización, o colonización de lo social. A mí me parece que si uno parte de una versión de lo social que no es tan positiva (en el sentido de asumir que “social” es un adjetivo que agrega un valor positivo al sustantivo que lo antecede o sigue) podría pensarse que lo que hacen las finanzas es construir sociedad. No lo digo en el sentido de lo social como personas que se reconocen a sí mismas como parte de un colectivo sino en un sentido mucho más formal. Un seguro, por ejemplo, produce poblaciones estadísticas. El negocio de los seguros es la administración del riesgo de sus pools. Sociológicamente, uno puede decir que lo que hacen los seguros es construir lo que Latour denomina “colectivos” donde el riesgo de los diferentes individuos agrupados pasa a estar interrelacionado (ver Ossandón 2014b). Algo similar podría decirse de la “securitización”. Al reunir los flujos futuros de muchas hipotecas, los bonos conectan las finanzas domésticas de muchos hogares que de otra forma no estarían conectados, pasan a ser un colectivo, una nueva formación social

A mi juicio, el estudio de estos procesos de construcción social muchas veces invisibilizados para los usuarios y para los sociólogos, es una vía interesante de análisis social de las finanzas. Como decía antes, no tenemos que asumir que sólo son sociales las prácticas domésticas o de los usuarios, pero podemos, en vez de eso, hacer un análisis simétrico, para usar un término de los Estudios de las Ciencias, orientado a comparar los diferentes tipos de colectivos que se construyen con instrumentos financieros como las tarjetas de crédito […] La sociología y la antropología de las finanzas no sólo deben intentar describir las formaciones sociales que surgen con las prácticas financieras domésticas, ni limitarse solamente a los estudios de traders o ejecutivos de empresas financieras. Creo que se hace importante estudiar la forma en que estos diferentes niveles de producción de colectivos, en mi caso las redes de préstamos de tarjetas y la administración de riesgo, se conectan empíricamente. Este es el argumento, aunque ya no sobre el caso de Chile, pero sobre los estudios sociales de las finanzas más generalmente que estamos intentando sugerir en el trabajo colectivo con Mariana Luzzi, Jeanne Lazarus y Joe Deville” Continue reading

Making news of value: exploiting dissonances in economic journalism

[Nuevo artículo de Tomás Undurraga en Journal of Cultural Economy]

Making news of value: exploiting dissonances in economic journalism

Tomás Undurraga

ABSTRACT

This article explores the multiple modes of valuation that pervade newsmaking in economic journalism. It does so by exploring the different ways in which journalists at Valor Econômico, the leading economic newspaper in Brazil, compete and cooperate in the production of news. Valor is a paradigmatic case for discussing valuation practices in newsmaking since its institutional promise is to produce news of value. How, if at all, do Valor journalists embrace the promise of producing news that generates value? Elaborating on Stark’s (2009. The sense of dissonance. Accounts of worth in economic life. Princeton University Press) idea of dissonance, it is contended that different orders of worth collide and cooperate within Valor newsroom. Moreover, journalists engage in a variety of valuation practices through which these orders of worth are shaped, defined, and refined, reflecting different understandings of economy and society, and different conceptions of what journalism is good for. I argue that Valor’s direction intentionally fosters a plural space of value dissonance in order to improve the quality of news reporting. I emphasise, however, that these dissonances are only productive against a larger background of consonance about what actually there is to disagree about. The article is based on a seven-month ethnography of Valor’s newsroom in São Paulo between 2013 and 2015. Continue reading

Sociology outside the United States: Sociology in Argentina

[Hace poco apareció en Contemporary Sociology: A Journal of Reviews una reseña de la reciente sociología argentina escrita por Claudio Benzecry y Mariana Heredia. La revisión, que refiere a varios trabajos de distinguidos participantes de este blog, usa la imagen de una ‘sociología en clave menor’ para describir una forma de investigación que es descriptiva y preferentemente cualitativa, a la vez que abierta a la mezcla de tradiciones conceptuales a la hora de explicar sus resultados. El artículo comienza así…]    

Sociology outside the United States

Sociology in Argentina

Claudio E. Benzecry

Mariana Heredia

“In a couple of recent review essays in the American Journal of Sociology, Andrew Abbott adopts the nom de plume “Barbara Celarent” to discuss two books first published in Argentina, one from the nineteenth century, Domingo Sarmiento’s Facundo, and a second one from the late 1970s, Gino Germani’s Authoritarianism, Fascism, and National Populism. Abbott uses the first text to remind sociologists not to lose sight of how good social science is “inextricably bound up with fiction, history, travelogue, polemic, and sheer egomania” (Celarent 2011:723); from Germani, he highlights the multi-method character of the relationship between social structure and the style of political mobilization known as Peronism (Celarent 2013).

We want to continue this work and extend this well-informed genealogical foray into the history of Argentinean sociology into the present. In the first section of this essay, we briefly expand on Abbott’s insights to show the imprinting power of Germani’s scholarship over the first two generations of Argentinean sociologists. In the second section, we provide an overview of the successive generations that have restructured the local field, as well as some current main topics of research, and of how contemporary approaches relate to and depart from the foundational topics and logics of inquiry” Continue reading

Positive psychology’s promise of happiness: A new form of human capital in contemporary neoliberal governmentality

[Nuevo artículo de Rodrigo de la Fabián y Antonio Stecher en Theory & Psychology]

Positive psychology’s promise of happiness: A new form of human capital in contemporary neoliberal governmentality

Abstract

The article seeks to contribute to governmentality studies by looking anew at the subjectivities posited by neoliberalism and especially by positive psychology. Focusing in particular on Sam Binkley’s critical work on this psychological sub-discipline, we offer a political analysis of the new ways of becoming a subject it proposes. For Binkley, positive psychology operates as a subjectivising vector by promoting a specific kind of work on oneself. His approach, we suggest, rests on a conception that relies on the classical disjunction between production and effort, on the one hand, and consumption and satisfaction, on the other. With references to Foucault, Marx, Becker, and Schultz’s conceptions of work and subjectivity, the article shows that positive psychology’s novelty is to enable a new happy subjective perspective from where happiness, rather than a long-term objective, is considered to be a precondition of work, a radical new form of human capital. Continue reading

The Elective Affinity between Elite Journalists and Mainstream Economists in Brazil

[Nuevo artículo de Antonio Pedroso y Tomás Undurraga en Journalism Studies]

The Elective Affinity between Elite Journalists and Mainstream Economists in Brazil

Abstract

This article explores the ties between elite economic journalists and mainstream economists in Brazil. It does so by investigating the influence of mainstream economists on journalists’ careers, and therewith, on Brazil’s public discussion. Using mixed methods, we study the main achievements that help to explain economic journalists’ position. We present a multiple correspondence analysis of 53 economic journalists, 30 who are in elite positions and 23 who are from the same cohort but are not in elite positions. Elaborating on 58 interviews, we explore the field’s professional dynamic, examining the sources that produce scoops, how journalists formed their economic perspectives and how economic sources link to the press. We find that there are two elites of economic journalists in Brazil with different career paths. Although careers among elite journalists might diverge, there is a manifest elective affinity between them and financial elites. Key economic journalists reached elite positions by sharing the doxa of mainstream economists. Journalists who worked in the Central Bank, economic ministers or private banks tended to rise in their professional careers. The familiarity with key financial agents of non-elite journalists, by contrast, is more limited. The article concludes by discussing the implications of this elective affinity for the public sphere in Brazil. Continue reading

Knowledge-production in journalism: Translation, mediation and authorship in Brazil

[Nuevo artículo de Tomás Undurrage en The Sociological Review]

“Knowledge-production in journalism: Translation, mediation and authorship in Brazil”

Tomás Undurraga

Abstract

Based on a multi-site ethnography of two influential newspapers in Brazil, this article examines how Brazilian journalists mediate knowledge claims made by experts, policy makers and the lay public. It asks whether and how these journalists experience themselves as knowledge-makers. More specifically, it argues that Brazilian journalists index their production of knowledge in reference to four main characteristics: depth, authorship, influence, and expertise. Journalists tend to consider newsmaking a contribution to knowledge when: (1) they have the resources to do proper investigative reporting (depth); (2) they are able to help define the public agenda through their reporting and to express their opinion (authorship); (3) they have impact on the polity, the economy or other fields they cover (influence) and (4) their journalistic knowledge is recognized by readers and by specialists (expertise). In practice, however, there are multiple obstacles that make Brazilian journalists hesitant about their contribution to knowledge, including intensified working conditions, the lack of plurality within the mainstream presses, and their informal methods for dealing with knowledge claims from other fields. This research reveals that Brazilian journalists have different understandings of the nature of knowledge in journalism. These understandings cluster around two distinct poles: an expert notion of knowledge associated with disciplinary boundaries, and a distinct conception associated with journalists’ capacity to mediate between jurisdictions. When journalists’ production is assessed from the former point of view, the informality of their methods is seen as undermining their knowledge credentials. By contrast, when journalists’ contribution is assessed from the latter point of view, their ‘interactional expertise’ comes to the fore.

Continue reading

Sourcing newness: ways of inducing indeterminacy

[Nuevo artículo de Michael Hutter & Ignacio Farías en Journal of Cultural Economy]

“Sourcing newness: ways of inducing indeterminacy”

Michael Hutter & Ignacio Farías

Abstract

This paper engages with the question of the new as the first stage in what may, at a later time, turn into an innovation. Taking our cue from John Dewey, the new is here interpreted as a consequence of indeterminacy. We study practices that induce indeterminacy in order to ‘source’ the new. Based on findings from a collective research programme, we distinguish three ways of inducing indeterminacy: configuring situations, creating things and risking valuations. For each of these ways of inducing indeterminacy basic variations are described and discussed in greater detail. The three ways of inducing indeterminacy are shown to correspond to a present-centred concept of time that distinguishes the now from a past and a future horizon. The cases presented affirm the claim that the new is not an inevitable consequence of the increasing entanglement of technoscience and the economy but something that needs to be sought for, cared for and actively produced.

KEYWORDS: Innovation, Dewey, indeterminacy, novelty, studio studies, artistic interventions, translation, valuation, critique Continue reading

Ethical living: relinking ethics and consumption through care in Chile and Brazil

[Nuevo artículo de Tomás Ariztía, Nurjk Agloni, Léna Pellandini-Simányi en British Journal of Sociology]

“Ethical living: relinking ethics and consumption through care in Chile and Brazil”

Tomás Ariztía, Nurjk Agloni, Léna Pellandini-Simányi

Abstract

Mainstream conceptualizations of ‘ethical consumption’ equate the notion with conscious, individual, market-mediated choices motivated by ethical or political aims that transcend ordinary concerns. Drawing on recent sociology and anthropology of consumption literature on the links between ordinary ethics and ethical consumption, this article discusses some of the limitations of this conceptualization. Using data from 32 focus groups conducted in Chile and Brazil, we propose a conceptualization of ethical consumption that does not centre on individual, market-mediated choices but understands it at the level of practical outcomes, which we refer to as different forms of ‘ethical living’. To do that, we argue, we need to depart from the deontological understanding of ethics that underpins mainstream approaches to ethical consumption and adopt a more consequentialist view focusing on ethical outcomes. We develop these points through describing one particular ordinary moral regime that seemed to be predominant in participants’ accounts of ethics and consumption in both Chile and Brazil: one that links consumption and ethics through care. We show that the moral regime of care leads to ‘ethical outcomes’, such as energy saving or limiting overconsumption, yet contrary to the mainstream view of ethical consumption emphasizing politicized choice expressed through markets, these result from following ordinary ethics, often through routines of practices.

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New book: Markets and the Arts of Attachment

[Routledge acaba de publicar un nuevo libro – Markets and the Arts of Attachment, editado por Franck Cochoy, Joe Deville, Liz McFall – de posible interés para los lectores de este blog]

Markets and the Arts of Attachment (Hardback) book coverMarkets and the Arts of Attachment, edited by Franck Cochoy, Joe Deville, Liz McFall

Table of Contents

Introduction: Markets and the Arts of Attachment, (Liz McFall, Franck Cochoy, Joe Deville)

  1. From Social Ties to Socio-Economic Attachments: A Matter of Selection and Collection, (Franck Cochoy)
  2. Manufacturing the Consumer’s Truth: The Uses of Consumer Research in Advertising Inquiry, (Tomas Ariztia)
  3. Marketing and the Domestication of Social Media, (Kevin Mellet)
  4. Interfacing Attachments: The Multivalence of Brands, (Carolin Gerlitz)
  5. You are a Star Customer, Please Hold the Line…’: CRM and the Socio-Technical Inscriptions of Market Attachment, (Alexandre Mallard)
  6. The Market will Have you: The Arts of Market Attachment in a Digital Economy, (Liz McFall and Joe Deville)
  7. ‘My Story has no Strings Attached’: Credit Cards, Market Devices and a Stone Guest, (José Ossandón)
  8. From Market Relations to Romantic Ties: The Tests of Internet Dating, (Emmanuel Kessous)
  9. Acquiring Associations: On the Unexpected Social Consequences of Possessive Relations, (Hans Kjellberg)

Afterword: The Devices of Attachment, (Michel Callon)

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