Mariana Heredia reseña y comenta Appetite for innovation de Pilar Opazo

Appetite for Innovation[La categoría “debate” es una sección dedicada a discutir a partir de libros publicados por los contribuidores de Estudios de la Economía. En este post Mariana Heredia comenta el libro Appetite for innovation. Cretivity & change at el Bulli (New York, Columbia University Press, 2016) de Pilar Opazo. El debate sobre Appetite for innovation continuará con un comentario de André Vereta-Nahoum, para terminar con las respuestas de Pilar a los comentaristas] 

Todos hemos escuchado algo por ahí: que la “cocina molecular”, que el temperamento singular de los chefs contemporáneos, que el apetito curioso de los comensales globales, que la creatividad catalana de Ferran Adrià. Pilar Opazo nos brinda, con su libro, la ocasión de conectar todas estas piezas y de zambullirnos en un tema tan entretenido como relevante: la historia de elBulli, el equipo que logró erigirse en vanguardia innovadora de la alta cocina en las últimas dos décadas.

Su primer gran logro es precisamente preservar la admiración por esa experiencia sin renunciar al despliegue de un trabajo sociológico sólido y detallado. El público más amplio podrá encontrar en el libro evidencias del modo en que Adrià y su equipo revolucionaron la preparación y la degustación de la comida, alcanzando la aclamación de la crítica y de sus pares. Los datos para la fascinación abundan: desde los comienzos de un chef de origen modesto en un restaurant perdido en el medio de la Costa Brava hasta las millones de reservas que se disputaron, con años de anticipación, un sitial para gozar del banquete; desde las apuestas riesgosas del equipo hasta la celebración de la crítica que cristalizó en tres estrellas de la guía Michelin y en la declaración, por 5 años consecutivos, de elBulli como el mejor restaurant del mundo según el Restaurant Magazine; desde la competencia encarnizada entre chefs de diversos continentes para enrolarse como ayudantes en la afamada cocina catalana hasta la invención de platos, utensilios y procedimientos extravagantes que desembocaron en un nuevo lenguaje culinario. Y un cierre a toda orquesta: la decisión de Adrià, en pleno éxito, de cerrar las puertas de su restaurant y crear una Fundación solo dedicada a la innovación. Pero el análisis propuesto sabe también interpelar a quienes, desde distintas especialidades, se preguntan sobre el significado y las condiciones de la innovación radical en las sociedades contemporáneas. Desde una aproximación claramente sociológica, el libro propone un análisis centrado en una organización que fue capaz de reinventarse y al hacerlo de producir grandes cambios. Para este público especializado, el objetivo del libro es, en palabras de la autora: “…considerar elBulli como un caso que puede expandir nuestro conocimiento sobre cómo la innovación puede ser promovida por una organización y, al hacerlo, provocar cambios en el sistema más extenso del cual es parte” (pág. 5). Continue reading

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How to write after performativity? (part 1)

[Este es una prueba de un nuevo tipo de post en este blog. El nombre de la sección por ahora es “artículos en cuotas”. La idea es, como en una novela por entregas, ir subiendo partes de papers a medida que vayan saliendo. El texto abajo es un primer intento. Es un borrador de la primera parte de un capítulo para el libro A Routledge Companion to ANT, editado por Anders Blok, Ignacio Farías & Celia Roberts. Por cierto, sugerencias sobre como debería seguir la historia son muy bienvenidos]

How to write after performativity? José Ossandón.

First installment of a chapter prepared for A Routledge Companion to ANT, edited by Anders Blok, Ignacio Farías & Celia Roberts. Non-proof read draft.

I. The question

The editors of this volume confronted each invited contribution with a question. The question posed for this chapter is ‘how to write after performativity?’ What is this chapter about?

Performativity

This chapter is not about performativity at large. It is not about the ‘performativity turn’ (Muniesa 2014) in the social sciences and humanities. It is not about the philosophy of language of Austin and Searle, it is not about Butler or Derrida, and it is not about Lyotard. It is about the particular extension of Actor-Network theory initiated by Michel Callon to the study of markets, movement which is normally associated with the word performativity[1]. The chapter does not deal with all the different theories Callon has successfully introduced in the study of economic problems. The chapter only tangentially touches issues such as Callon’s particular approach to the qualification of goods (Callon et al 2002), hybrid forums, affected groups and technological democracy (Callon 2009, TCS), and innovation (Akrich et al 2002). The chapter focuses on what Callon has – in part in order to distinguish his own emphases from the many other branches of the performativity turn – termed ‘performation’[2]: his theory to explain the ‘emergence and logic of calculative agencies’ (Callon 1998a: 24).

After performativity

After, writes Peter Sloterdijk, ‘is the name for a break, an epoche, in the traditional sense of the word, which indicates both the caesura and also the time following it’ (Sloterdijk 2016: pp[3]). After performativity is, then, not against, versus, or even beyond performativity; it refers to the possibilities that have been opened and were not before the breach introduced by the theory of interest here. It is, as it were, about the performativity of performativity. Continue reading

Coloquio de Sociología Económica, 26 de Octubre de 2017

EMMKT COLOQUIO SOCIOLOGIA-01

Realizamos un cordial llamado a las y los estudiantes de licenciatura en las disciplinas de las ciencias sociales, a los y las investigadoras y a la comunidad académica, para presentar resúmenes de  ponencias, revistas y libros, en las distintas líneas  temáticas del Coloquio de Sociología Económica, que se llevará a cabo el día 26 de octubre en la Escuela de Sociología de la Facultad de Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad Central de Chile.

Fechas relevantes:

7 de agosto: cierre de recepción de resúmenes de ponencia

8 al 31 de agosto: Envió de cartas de aceptación o rechazo, y comentarios

11 a 15 de septiembre: organización de mesas y comentaristas

25 al 30 de septiembre: diseño y publicación de programa

26 de octubre: Realización del encuentro coloquio

Los ejes temáticos para la presentación de resúmenes, ponencias, libros y revistas, son los siguientes: Continue reading

Sociology outside the United States: Sociology in Argentina

[Hace poco apareció en Contemporary Sociology: A Journal of Reviews una reseña de la reciente sociología argentina escrita por Claudio Benzecry y Mariana Heredia. La revisión, que refiere a varios trabajos de distinguidos participantes de este blog, usa la imagen de una ‘sociología en clave menor’ para describir una forma de investigación que es descriptiva y preferentemente cualitativa, a la vez que abierta a la mezcla de tradiciones conceptuales a la hora de explicar sus resultados. El artículo comienza así…]    

Sociology outside the United States

Sociology in Argentina

Claudio E. Benzecry

Mariana Heredia

“In a couple of recent review essays in the American Journal of Sociology, Andrew Abbott adopts the nom de plume “Barbara Celarent” to discuss two books first published in Argentina, one from the nineteenth century, Domingo Sarmiento’s Facundo, and a second one from the late 1970s, Gino Germani’s Authoritarianism, Fascism, and National Populism. Abbott uses the first text to remind sociologists not to lose sight of how good social science is “inextricably bound up with fiction, history, travelogue, polemic, and sheer egomania” (Celarent 2011:723); from Germani, he highlights the multi-method character of the relationship between social structure and the style of political mobilization known as Peronism (Celarent 2013).

We want to continue this work and extend this well-informed genealogical foray into the history of Argentinean sociology into the present. In the first section of this essay, we briefly expand on Abbott’s insights to show the imprinting power of Germani’s scholarship over the first two generations of Argentinean sociologists. In the second section, we provide an overview of the successive generations that have restructured the local field, as well as some current main topics of research, and of how contemporary approaches relate to and depart from the foundational topics and logics of inquiry” Continue reading

Positive psychology’s promise of happiness: A new form of human capital in contemporary neoliberal governmentality

[Nuevo artículo de Rodrigo de la Fabián y Antonio Stecher en Theory & Psychology]

Positive psychology’s promise of happiness: A new form of human capital in contemporary neoliberal governmentality

Abstract

The article seeks to contribute to governmentality studies by looking anew at the subjectivities posited by neoliberalism and especially by positive psychology. Focusing in particular on Sam Binkley’s critical work on this psychological sub-discipline, we offer a political analysis of the new ways of becoming a subject it proposes. For Binkley, positive psychology operates as a subjectivising vector by promoting a specific kind of work on oneself. His approach, we suggest, rests on a conception that relies on the classical disjunction between production and effort, on the one hand, and consumption and satisfaction, on the other. With references to Foucault, Marx, Becker, and Schultz’s conceptions of work and subjectivity, the article shows that positive psychology’s novelty is to enable a new happy subjective perspective from where happiness, rather than a long-term objective, is considered to be a precondition of work, a radical new form of human capital. Continue reading

The Elective Affinity between Elite Journalists and Mainstream Economists in Brazil

[Nuevo artículo de Antonio Pedroso y Tomás Undurraga en Journalism Studies]

The Elective Affinity between Elite Journalists and Mainstream Economists in Brazil

Abstract

This article explores the ties between elite economic journalists and mainstream economists in Brazil. It does so by investigating the influence of mainstream economists on journalists’ careers, and therewith, on Brazil’s public discussion. Using mixed methods, we study the main achievements that help to explain economic journalists’ position. We present a multiple correspondence analysis of 53 economic journalists, 30 who are in elite positions and 23 who are from the same cohort but are not in elite positions. Elaborating on 58 interviews, we explore the field’s professional dynamic, examining the sources that produce scoops, how journalists formed their economic perspectives and how economic sources link to the press. We find that there are two elites of economic journalists in Brazil with different career paths. Although careers among elite journalists might diverge, there is a manifest elective affinity between them and financial elites. Key economic journalists reached elite positions by sharing the doxa of mainstream economists. Journalists who worked in the Central Bank, economic ministers or private banks tended to rise in their professional careers. The familiarity with key financial agents of non-elite journalists, by contrast, is more limited. The article concludes by discussing the implications of this elective affinity for the public sphere in Brazil. Continue reading

Knowledge-production in journalism: Translation, mediation and authorship in Brazil

[Nuevo artículo de Tomás Undurrage en The Sociological Review]

“Knowledge-production in journalism: Translation, mediation and authorship in Brazil”

Tomás Undurraga

Abstract

Based on a multi-site ethnography of two influential newspapers in Brazil, this article examines how Brazilian journalists mediate knowledge claims made by experts, policy makers and the lay public. It asks whether and how these journalists experience themselves as knowledge-makers. More specifically, it argues that Brazilian journalists index their production of knowledge in reference to four main characteristics: depth, authorship, influence, and expertise. Journalists tend to consider newsmaking a contribution to knowledge when: (1) they have the resources to do proper investigative reporting (depth); (2) they are able to help define the public agenda through their reporting and to express their opinion (authorship); (3) they have impact on the polity, the economy or other fields they cover (influence) and (4) their journalistic knowledge is recognized by readers and by specialists (expertise). In practice, however, there are multiple obstacles that make Brazilian journalists hesitant about their contribution to knowledge, including intensified working conditions, the lack of plurality within the mainstream presses, and their informal methods for dealing with knowledge claims from other fields. This research reveals that Brazilian journalists have different understandings of the nature of knowledge in journalism. These understandings cluster around two distinct poles: an expert notion of knowledge associated with disciplinary boundaries, and a distinct conception associated with journalists’ capacity to mediate between jurisdictions. When journalists’ production is assessed from the former point of view, the informality of their methods is seen as undermining their knowledge credentials. By contrast, when journalists’ contribution is assessed from the latter point of view, their ‘interactional expertise’ comes to the fore.

Continue reading

Sourcing newness: ways of inducing indeterminacy

[Nuevo artículo de Michael Hutter & Ignacio Farías en Journal of Cultural Economy]

“Sourcing newness: ways of inducing indeterminacy”

Michael Hutter & Ignacio Farías

Abstract

This paper engages with the question of the new as the first stage in what may, at a later time, turn into an innovation. Taking our cue from John Dewey, the new is here interpreted as a consequence of indeterminacy. We study practices that induce indeterminacy in order to ‘source’ the new. Based on findings from a collective research programme, we distinguish three ways of inducing indeterminacy: configuring situations, creating things and risking valuations. For each of these ways of inducing indeterminacy basic variations are described and discussed in greater detail. The three ways of inducing indeterminacy are shown to correspond to a present-centred concept of time that distinguishes the now from a past and a future horizon. The cases presented affirm the claim that the new is not an inevitable consequence of the increasing entanglement of technoscience and the economy but something that needs to be sought for, cared for and actively produced.

KEYWORDS: Innovation, Dewey, indeterminacy, novelty, studio studies, artistic interventions, translation, valuation, critique Continue reading

Ethical living: relinking ethics and consumption through care in Chile and Brazil

[Nuevo artículo de Tomás Ariztía, Nurjk Agloni, Léna Pellandini-Simányi en British Journal of Sociology]

“Ethical living: relinking ethics and consumption through care in Chile and Brazil”

Tomás Ariztía, Nurjk Agloni, Léna Pellandini-Simányi

Abstract

Mainstream conceptualizations of ‘ethical consumption’ equate the notion with conscious, individual, market-mediated choices motivated by ethical or political aims that transcend ordinary concerns. Drawing on recent sociology and anthropology of consumption literature on the links between ordinary ethics and ethical consumption, this article discusses some of the limitations of this conceptualization. Using data from 32 focus groups conducted in Chile and Brazil, we propose a conceptualization of ethical consumption that does not centre on individual, market-mediated choices but understands it at the level of practical outcomes, which we refer to as different forms of ‘ethical living’. To do that, we argue, we need to depart from the deontological understanding of ethics that underpins mainstream approaches to ethical consumption and adopt a more consequentialist view focusing on ethical outcomes. We develop these points through describing one particular ordinary moral regime that seemed to be predominant in participants’ accounts of ethics and consumption in both Chile and Brazil: one that links consumption and ethics through care. We show that the moral regime of care leads to ‘ethical outcomes’, such as energy saving or limiting overconsumption, yet contrary to the mainstream view of ethical consumption emphasizing politicized choice expressed through markets, these result from following ordinary ethics, often through routines of practices.

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New book: Markets and the Arts of Attachment

[Routledge acaba de publicar un nuevo libro – Markets and the Arts of Attachment, editado por Franck Cochoy, Joe Deville, Liz McFall – de posible interés para los lectores de este blog]

Markets and the Arts of Attachment (Hardback) book coverMarkets and the Arts of Attachment, edited by Franck Cochoy, Joe Deville, Liz McFall

Table of Contents

Introduction: Markets and the Arts of Attachment, (Liz McFall, Franck Cochoy, Joe Deville)

  1. From Social Ties to Socio-Economic Attachments: A Matter of Selection and Collection, (Franck Cochoy)
  2. Manufacturing the Consumer’s Truth: The Uses of Consumer Research in Advertising Inquiry, (Tomas Ariztia)
  3. Marketing and the Domestication of Social Media, (Kevin Mellet)
  4. Interfacing Attachments: The Multivalence of Brands, (Carolin Gerlitz)
  5. You are a Star Customer, Please Hold the Line…’: CRM and the Socio-Technical Inscriptions of Market Attachment, (Alexandre Mallard)
  6. The Market will Have you: The Arts of Market Attachment in a Digital Economy, (Liz McFall and Joe Deville)
  7. ‘My Story has no Strings Attached’: Credit Cards, Market Devices and a Stone Guest, (José Ossandón)
  8. From Market Relations to Romantic Ties: The Tests of Internet Dating, (Emmanuel Kessous)
  9. Acquiring Associations: On the Unexpected Social Consequences of Possessive Relations, (Hans Kjellberg)

Afterword: The Devices of Attachment, (Michel Callon)

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